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ChartitNOW
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Lean Manufacturing
Welcome to Lean Manufacturing

Lean ManufacturingLean Manufacturing is the systematic elimination of waste, and the implementation of continuous flow concepts and customer pull. Lean is the best management system for satisfying customers on delivery, quality, and price.

Many companies are turning to lean manufacturing in an effort to become more profitable. Implementing "Lean" can create superior financial and operational results. Lean manufacturing comes from the Toyota Production System. Practiced by Toyota for many years the ultimate goal of the syste, is to produce quality products by cost reduction activities and a cultural focus on employee involvement through empowerment. Lean manufacturing uses concepts pioneered by Toyota Motor Company’s former vice president Taiichi Ohno. This "new" manufacturing culture is based on working in every facet of the value stream, to include instilling the discipline to reduce cost, to generate capital, to make the money, to bring in more sales, and to remain competitive in a growing global market.  

Lean Manufacturing

The Value Stream of a business is the sequence of steps that a company performs in order to satisfy a customer’s need. In every Value Stream, a 50-70% reduction in the number of steps in the process can be achieved. The first step a company must take to change their value stream is to determine its lean status by identifying efficiency gaps and areas for waste/cost reductions. Lean manufacturing is a fundamental enterprise transformation that must be approached as a total organizational and cultural transformation. Value stream mapping is a good way to train staff to find waste, identify the root cause, and prepare a strategic plan for its elimination.

The seven categories of non-value added waste are overproduction, inventory, transportation, waiting, motion, over-processing, and correction. Overproduction is a source of waste for most firms and is referred to as the batch and queue mode of operation. This large-batch processing mode is an outdated paradigm. Another problem with large batches is that there is no connection between the pace of production and the pace of demand. Reduced lot sizes with quick set-up capability is the paradigm of the 21st century. Producing various models in small lots improves responsiveness to customers and flexibility to respond to changes in demand. The smaller the lot means the smoother the process flow. The following five areas drive lean manufacturing/production: cost, quality, delivery, safety, and morale. Lean manufacturing views continuous, one-piece flow as the ideal and emphasizes optimizing and integrating systems of machines, materials, people, and facilities. Continuous flow follows the produce one-by-one as efficiently as possible ideology.

Lean manufacturing elements

Waste elimination, continuous one-piece workflow, and customer pull are the basic elements of lean manufacturing. Focusing these elements in the areas of cost, quality, and delivery forms the basis for a lean production system. Lean techniques can also be applied to the service industry. In the service industry eliminating waste is the process of eliminating anything that does not add value to your customer.

What is Lean

By definition, lean manufacturing is the systematic elimination of waste from all aspects of an organization's operations, where waste is viewed as any use or loss of resources that does not lead directly to creating the product or service a customer wants when they want it. In many industrial processes, such non-value added activity can comprise more than 90 percent of a factory's total activity1. (More information about the types of waste in lean manufacturing.) Lean manufacturing – also known as lean, agile manufacturing, or Just-in-Time production – was originally developed by the Toyota Motor Company in Japan based on concepts pioneered by Henry Ford.

Nationwide, numerous companies of varying size across multiple industry sectors, primarily in manufacturing and service sectors, are implementing lean production, and experts report that the rate of lean adoption is accelerating. Companies generally choose to engage in lean production to boost company profits and competitiveness. These efforts have three primary objectives:

  • Reduce production resource requirements and costs;
  • Increase customer responsiveness; and
  • Improve product quality.

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How is Lean Manufacturing Different from Traditional Manufacturing?

Lean involves a fundamental paradigm shift from conventional "batch and queue" mass production to product-aligned "one-piece flow" pull production. Whereas "batch and queue" involves mass production of large lots of products in advance based on potential or predicted customer demands, a "one-piece flow" system rearranges production activities in a way that processing steps of different types are conducted immediately adjacent to each other in a continuous flow.

This shift requires highly controlled processes operated in a well maintained, ordered, and clean environment that incorporates principles of employee-involved, system-wide, continual improvement.

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Lean Methods

There are numerous methods that organizations use to implement lean production; the most commonly used methods are listed below. A summary of the environmental implications of each method is also available.

While most of these methods are interrelated and can occur concurrently, most organizations begin by implementing lean techniques in a particular production area or at a "pilot" facility, and then expand use of the methods over time. Companies typically tailor these methods to address their own unique needs and circumstances. In doing so, they may develop their own terminology around the various methods.

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Overall Lean Frameworks

Kaizen Rapid Process Improvement Events — Kaizen (Japanese for "to take apart and make good") refers to the continuous, incremental improvement of production activities. It is typically implemented through frequent, structured worker-oriented events that last 3-7 days.

Value Stream Mapping — A process mapping method used to document the current and future states of the information and material flows in a value stream from customer to supplier. Lean practitioners use value-stream maps to identify targets for future process improvement activities (e.g., kaizen events).

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Process Improvement Methods

5S — An improvement process involving five steps (Sort, Set in order, Shine, Standardize, and Sustain) to create and maintain a clean, neat, and orderly workplace. Some organizations add a sixth "S" for Safety.

Standard Work & Visual Controls — Standard work represents the best ("least-waste") way to perform a given operation. Visual controls are used to reinforce standardized procedures and to display the status of an activity so every employee can see it and take appropriate action.

Cellular Manufacturing — An approach where manufacturing work centers (cells) have the total capabilities needed to produce an item or group of similar items; contrasts to setting up work centers on the basis of similar equipment or capabilities, in which case items must move among multiple work centers before they are completed.

Just in Time (JIT) / Kanban — Just in time is a production scheduling concept that calls for any item needed at a production operation – whether raw material, finished product, or anything in between – to be produced and available precisely when needed. Kanban (signals) are used to control levels of inventory and work in process.

Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) — An approach to enlist operators in the design, selection, correction, and maintenance of equipment to ensure that every machine or process is always able to perform its required tasks without interrupting or slowing down defect free production.

Six Sigma — A methodology and collection of statistical tools to reduce variation and improve business processes. Six sigma aims at a defect rate of no more than 3.4 defects per million chances.

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Advanced Lean Enterprise Methods

Pre-Production Planning (3P) — The lean method for product and/or process design. 3P designs and implements production processes, tools, and equipment that support one-piece flow, are designed for ease of manufacturing, and achieve appropriate cost, quality, and lead time. Also known as Production Preparation Process.

Lean Enterprise Supplier Networks — A set of buyer-supplier relationships where organizations apply lean production concepts across the supply chain to reduce costs, delays, and other wastes.

Types of Waste Targeted by Lean Methods

Lean methods typically target eight types of waste. Each of these wastes has a potential environmental impact, shown below. It is interesting to note that the "wastes" typically targeted by environmental management agencies, such as non-product output and raw material wastes, are not explicitly included in the list of manufacturing wastes that lean practitioners routinely target.

Defects Scrap, rework, replacement production, inspection Order entry, design, or engineering errors
Waiting Stock-outs, lot processing delays, equipment downtime, capacity bottlenecks System downtime, response time, approvals
Overproduction Manufacturing items for which there are no orders Printing paperwork, purchasing items before they are needed; processing paperwork before the next person is ready for it
Transportation Transporting work-in-process (WIP) long distances, trucking to and from an off-site storage facility Multiple sites outside of walking distance, Off-site training
Inventory Excess raw material, WIP, or finished goods Office supplies, sales literature, and reports
Complexity More parts, process steps, or time than necessary to meet customer needs Re-entry of data, extra copies, excessive reporting, etc.
Unused creativity Lost time, ideas, skills, improvements, and suggestions from employees Limited tools or authority available to employees to carry-out basic tasks
 
Endorsed Presentation:
Lean Assessment

Lean Manufacturing Overview PowerPoint Training Presentation
This professionally-developed presentation is designed as a 40-60 minute overview of the topic. Many customers use the presentation as part of a group learning event, individual training at a computer, or as foundation slides for a more detailed or customized training presentation.

The presentation is delivered in native Microsoft PowerPoint format for easy customization. All slides may be changed to accommodate your desired use. The only restriction is that the presentation cannot be resold without permission of Superfactory.
  • Number of slides: 42
Table of Contents:
  • Introduction
  • Background & History
  • 5S & Visual Factory
  • Cellular Manufacturing
  • Jidoka
  • Kaizen
  • Poka Yoke & Mistake Proofing
  • Quick Changeover & SMED
  • Production Preparation Process (3P)
  • Pull Manufacturing & Just In Time
  • Standard Work
  • Theory of Constraints
  • Total Productive Maintenance
  • Training Within Industry (TWI)
  • Value Streams
  • Knowledge Check

Lean Office Overview PowerPoint Training Presentation
This professionally-developed presentation is designed as a 40-60 minute overview of the topic. Many customers use the presentation as part of a group learning event, individual training at a computer, or as foundation slides for a more detailed or customized training presentation.

The presentation is delivered in native Microsoft PowerPoint format for easy customization. All slides may be changed to accommodate your desired use. The only restriction is that the presentation cannot be resold without permission of Superfactory.
  • Number of slides: 236
Table of Contents:
  • Introduction
  • Background & History
  • 5S & Visual Factory
  • Cellular Manufacturing
  • Jidoka
  • Kaizen
  • Poka Yoke & Mistake Proofing
  • Quick Changeover & SMED
  • Production Preparation Process (3P)
  • Pull Manufacturing & Just In Time
  • Standard Work
  • Theory of Constraints
  • Total Productive Maintenance
  • Training Within Industry (TWI)
  • Value Streams
  • Knowledge Check

Lean Assess Package

The ultimate aim of lean manufacturing is the complete elimination of waste from the product creation process. Lean Assess is a thought process used to look at your business whether it is manufacturing, service or any other activity where you have a supplier and a customer/receiver and eliminate non value adding activities for the end customer. The ChartitNOW package contains the following:
  • 5S To Do List
  • Lean Manufacturing Cell Target Worksheet
  • Work Time Study Worksheet
  • Lean Manufacturing Assessment sheet
  • 9 Waste Radar Chart
  • 11 Waste Checksheet
  • The Nine Waste Percentage
  • Waste Walk Sheet
  • Product Family Planning Sheet
  • Waste Identification Map

Lean Manufacturing Course Outline -- 3 Units

Unit 1 - Lean Concepts Lesson 1: Why Lean? · Be customer focused: Be on-time, responsive, flexible, and fast. · Simplify and standardize workflows: Mimic continuous flow, minimize WIP, use visible measures. · Manage capacity: Increase process uptime, reduce set-up times, find "lost" capacity. · Eliminate waste: Identify non-value adding activities, then modify, combine, or eliminate those tasks. · JIT: Not too early and never late; not just-in-case inventory but just-in time production and delivery; products must always be made right the first time; equipment must always work when needed. Lesson 2: Lean Terminology · Terms · Tools · Techniques Lesson 3: Eliminate Waste with Lean · Match lot sizes to customer demands: Use kanbans; end WIP. · Use pull scheduling instead of push scheduling. · Schedule to the rate-determining step (the bottleneck., then debottleneck process lines. · Facilitate fast feedback: Arrange sequential operations next to each other ensures fast feedback from internal customer operation to internal supper operation if something in-process is not right. Lesson 4: Components of Lean · Overview of the 8 Components of Lean: Value Stream Mapping, Workplace Organization, Predictability & Consistency, Set-up Reduction, TPM, Visual Factory, Support Processes, & Continuous Improvement. Lesson 5: Value Stream Analysis · Mapping the process from incoming order to outgoing product: Define process goals, create the current state map, & establish process metrics. · Using the current state map to identify potential improvements, conceive the future state. Lesson 6: Lean Thinking · Eliminating waste is not limited to manufacturing; the same techniques apply to the office, sales, finance, maintenance, and even R&D processes and procedures. · Lean & Six Sigma are complementary. Challenge: An assessment of the learner's progress in this unit.

Unit 2 - Lean Practices Lesson 1: Value Stream Mapping. · Identify process goals. · Collect & analyze process data. · Create a macro-facility workflow to determine how to minimize high volume travel distances. · Conduct a micro-process workflow to apply cellular concepts, identify and remove bottlenecks, & move to pull manufacturing with kanbans. Lesson 2: Workplace Organization · Apply the 5S's: Sort (clearing the work area), Set in Order (designating locations), Shine (cleanliness and workplace appearance), Standardize (everyone doing things the same way), & Sustain (ingraining it in the culture). Lesson 3: Predictability & Consistency.\ · Use DFA/DFM to design quality in. · Conduct GR&Rs to ensure reliable measurement systems are in place. · Employ SPC to help ensure processes are predictable & stable. · Reduce variation & improve process capability with DOE. · Eliminate the root cause of defects using problem-solving and mistake-proofing. · Move to Six Sigma quality. Lesson 4: Set-up Reduction · Apply SMED concepts. · Separate external tasks (external to the process) from internal tasks. Lesson 5: TPM · TPM versus PM. · Develop operator involvement in the equipment and begin predictive maintenance practices. Lesson 6: Visual Factory · Use status display of performance for dashboard or balanced measures and COQ results. · Visual controls such as sensory alerts indicate if something is out of place. · Marking on the floor, kanbans, andons, & panel-alarms all help build a visual control infrastructure. Lesson 7: Support Processes · Lean techniques require changes in Purchasing, Scheduling, Warehousing/Shipping, & Accounting practices. Lesson 8: Continuous Improvement · Fight NIH (not-invented-here) attitudes and leveraging successes. · Use kaizen events for rapid, targeted improvements to achieve the future state. · Use a standardized Problem-Solving Model (e.g. DMAIC or 8-D). · Begin as employee idea system. Challenge: An assessment of the learner's progress in this unit.

Unit 3 - Implementing Lean Lesson 1: Lean Starts with People · Communicate the why, what, how, & who. Provide education in the concepts. · Train employees in tools & techniques as needed to achieve a flexible workforce. Lesson 2: Data Drives Lean · Focus efforts on projects that lead to tangible saving. · Calculation techniques to generate data include: Time studies, equipment loading, TAKT time, staffing requirements, process yields, & COQ. · Sample Worksheets covered include: Lean Project Summary; Cell Target Worksheet; Data Collection Form for Basic Equipment and Utility Parameters; Value-adding Analysis Worksheet; Process Change-Over/Setup Worksheet; Set-Up Reduction Worksheet; Cubic Feet Analysis Worksheet; & Lot Size Worksheet. Lesson 3: Layout Options · Improved layout are about moving cubic feet (not numbers of items), eliminating crossover points, arranging the process in the natural flow order; linking processes to minimize time and distance; moving equipment together to simulate a continuous process flow; & putting internal customers and suppliers next to each other. · Be careful to identify anchors or monuments; do not move them. · Typical layout options are explored. Lesson 4: Lean Inventory Practices · Minimize trips to and from the warehouse by designing the warehouse to work for you. · Use ABC inventory categories to prioritize inventory needs and storage locations. Lesson 5: Roadmap for Lean · Start with the people issues. · Focus on workplace organization (the 5S's), then, use value stream analysis and process workflow analysis to establish effective layouts. · Where to focus next depends on specific needs. · Use targeted Kaizen events to speed changes. · Do not overlook the need to modify support processes (especially scheduling and purchasing). Lesson 6: Pitfalls with Lean · Not documenting the financial impact/savings. · Lack of commitment from leadership. · Using traditional purchasing practices. · Not changing scheduling techniques. · Failure to address workforce issues. · Not really mistake-proofing the root cause. · Thinking Lean is just for manufacturing. · Not using beneficial technology. · Not leveraging successes. · Getting too lean. · Failing to hold the gains. Challenge: An assessment of the learner's progress in this unit.

Introduction to Lean Six Sigma Course Outline -- 4 Lessons

Lean Six Sigma is a business philosophy leading to the elimination of waste and the reduction of variation. With Lean Six Sigma, costs are reduced, productivity is raised and customer satisfaction is enhanced. The basic tenants of Lean Six Sigma are: . Focus on customers and their needs . Ensure internal alignment and communication . Develop necessary skill sets to improve effectiveness and efficiency . Continually assess all process elements for waste and variation . Involve everyone

Introduction to Lean Six Sigma introduces the fundamentals of Lean Six Sigma providing a comprehensive understanding of what it is, background on the improvement methodologies used in a Six Sigma Process, important details on the necessary supporting infrastructure and provides examples of Lean Six Sigma in manufacturing, the office, order entry, warehousing and distribution, sales and R&D.

Course Objectives 1. Understand the scope and breadth of a Lean Six Sigma initiative. 2. Gain an understanding of what waste is and how to identify it so that it can be reduced. 3. Become aware of variation and techniques to reduce it. 4. Become familiar with the DMAIC team project model. 5. Be aware of the infrastructure needed to support a Lean Six Sigma effort.

Intended Audience All employees who will be involved in Lean Six Sigma efforts.

Time to Complete 2 hours
Why Does My Company Need This Training Program? If your company is starting a Lean Six Sigma effort, this course will help introduce everyone to the basic concepts of Lean Six Sigma and you will begin to develop a common language of Lean Six Sigma.

Course Outline - Introduction to Lean Six Sigma Lesson 1: What is Lean Six Sigma . Learn what Lean Six Sigma is. . The basics of Lean Six Sigma. . Combining Lean and Six Sigma for a comprehensive improvement strategy. Lesson 2: Improvement Methodologies . Value stream mapping. . Eliminating waste. . Incorporating the 5S's. . Starting the DMAIC Project Cycle. Lesson 3: Supporting Infrastructure . Understanding the roles in Lean Six Sigma: the Leadership Team, Champions, Black Belts, Green Belts, Project Teams Lesson 4: Application of Lean Six Sigma . Lean Six Sigma in manufacturing, the office, order entry, warehousing and distribution, sales and R&D Challenge (Course Test): Introduction to Lean Six Sigma Test

Lean for Business Processes Course Outline -- 7 Lessons

Lean for Business Processes is a computer-based training course designed specifically for those working in business processes and transactional environments. The course begins with explanations and examples of the Seven Wastes in "office-friendly" terms. Process mapping techniques are coupled with process streamlining methods to demonstrate how value streams can be configured to be more effective. The course adds 5S, error-proofing and TPM techniques to the lean business processes arsenal and wraps up with a discussion of measures that can be used to sustain and expand the Lean initiative. The Lean for Business Processes training program contains seven lessons and a course Challenge (assessment test) designed to test the learner's comprehension of the body of knowledge covered in the course.

Target Audience This course is designed for the office, service, retail, public service organizations and all staff in a manufacturing organization who are in management, business support, office, and other non-manufacturing roles. Those who are in direct manufacturing or manufacturing management roles may also want to consider the Lean Manufacturing Course.

Course Length The estimated time to complete the course is 6 hours however the amount of time a learner spends on the course is learner controlled and is therefore variable.

Course Objectives Upon completing this course, learners should be prepared to: • Understand the Seven Wastes and be able to actively support efforts to reduce them. • Recognize value-added from the customer's perspective. • Use Brown-Paper Flowcharts, Workflow Diagrams and Value Stream Maps to document current processes. • "Question" workflows to identify non-value-adding activities and tasks. • Develop a plan to simplify and streamline workflows. • Support a 5S effort in their work area. • Understand the power of error-proofing to prevent future problems. • Assist a Business Process TPM effort. • Be able to track macro measures of the Lean initiative.

Lesson 1: Tackling Waste • Identify the seven wastes. • Explain value-adding versus non-value adding. • Define value from customer's perspectives. • Briefly describe how each of the seven wastes detracts value from a process. Lesson 2 Process Mapping • Define the bounds of a workflow. • Use a variety of process (workflow) mapping techniques. • Identity hand-offs, disconnects, incomplete communication and rework loops as non-value-adding components (or waste.) • Plan improvements to workflows. • Consider a move from batch processing to continuous (or one-piece) flow. Lesson 3 Streamline the Process • Know what Takt Time means. • Identify process bottlenecks. • Calculate Process Cycle Efficiency. • Understand how to balance workloads within a process workflow. • Calculate First Pass Yield. • Be familiar with workflow and work station layout considerations. Lesson 4 5S's in the Office • Identify each of the 5S's. • Know how to clear clutter from a work area. • Explain the rationale for selecting effective designated storage locations. • Understand how to maintain the work area's appearance and use preventive measures to keep it clean. • Describe what it means to standardize and why standardization is important. • Know how to use audits to sustain workplace organization and to prevent backsliding. Lesson 5 Error-Proofing Overview • Understand the error-proofing mindset. • Be aware of common error-proofing techniques. • Comprehend the Transaction Model (consisting of the server-side and customer-side.) • Know how to use basic root cause analysis tools. Lesson 6 TPM for Business Processes • Be aware of TPM's impact on the Seven Wastes. • Recognize TPM's influence on reliability and uptime of business process support systems. • Begin measuring Overall Equipment Effectiveness. Lesson 7 Lean Business Process Measures • Measure Lean efforts by tracking Process Cycle Efficiency trends. • Create a Balanced Scorecard to track waste reduction. • Audit 5S activities to maintain workplace organization momentum. • Monitor uptime, throughput rates and yields using Overall Equipment Effectiveness. • Develop two-dimensional surveys to gather meaningful customer feedback.

Challenge • An assessment of the learner's understanding of the body of knowledge.

The Lean Mindset

Explore the mindset needed to launch a successful Lean initiative. Time: 1.4 hours

Overview of Lean

An overview of the principles and practices of Lean. Time: 1.5 hours

Lean Support Processes

Successful Lean Manufacturing initiatives require lean support processes. Time: 1.9 hours.

Lean Implementation

A 9-step roadmap for planning and launching a Lean initiative. Time: 1.5 hours.


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