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Glossary - T
 

t Test - A hypothesis test based on approximating the probability histogram of the test statistic by student's t curve. T tests usually are used to test hypotheses about the mean of a population when the sample size is intermediate and the distribution of the population is known to be nearly normal.

Tactic
- A specific device or plan for carrying out a strategy.

Taguchi Loss Function
- G. Taguchi pointed out that both the manufacturer's and society's expected loss (or cost) is reduced when the results of a process are centered on the intended target value with little variation. The loss (cost) is ever increasing as those same product characteristics depart from their targets. The expected loss also depends on where the distribution is, relative to the target. The Taguchi loss function is often shown as a parabolic curve, but in some situations the loss function is asymmetric with respect to the target, or desired value.

Taguchi Method
- An approach to quality management developed by dr. Genichi taguchi in 1980. The taguchi method provides: (1) a basis for determining the functional relationship between controllable product or service design factors and the outcomes of a process, (2) a method for adjusting the mean of a process by optimizing controllable variables, and (3) a procedure for examining the relationship between random noise in the process and product or service variability.

Taguchi Methods -
The American Supplier Institute’s trademarked term for the quality engineering methodology developed by Genichi Taguchi. In this engineering approach to quality control, Taguchi calls for off-line quality control, on-line quality control and a system of experimental design to improve quality and reduce costs.

Takt Time - (1) Matching the rate of production to the rate of sales or consumption. Takt Time (a German word for meter or measure) Takt Time is used to only produce exactly what your customers will consume; nothing more and nothing less. In practical application knowing what Takt Time is for a specific product can help you understand the level of effort you will have to exert to meet your customer's demand. (2) The rate of customer demand, takt time is calculated by dividing production time by the quantity of product the customer requires in that time. Takt is the heartbeat of a lean manufacturing system. Also see “cycle time.”

Tampering
- Adjusting a stable process in an attempt to improve the next result by compensating for or taking into account the deviation from the target of the previous result. Tampering, or over-adjustment of a stable process, actually increases the variation of the results. OR action taken to compensate for variation within the control limits of a stable system; tampering increases rather than decreases variation, as evidenced in the funnel experiment.

Tangibles
- A dimension of service quality that refers to the physical appearance of the service facility, the equipment, the personnel, and the communications material.

Target - Expected results in policy deployment approach.

Target Company
- The company that is being studied or benchmarked against.

Targeted Process
- The process that is being studied or benchmarked.

Target Value - The exact value at which customers, engineering, or management want the system to operate.

Task Environment
- The portion of a firm’s environment pertaining to structural issues such as the skill levels of employees, remuneration policies, technology, and the nature of government agencies.

Task Needs
- Assessment the process of assessing the skills that are needed within a firm.

Task -
A specific, definable activity to perform an assigned piece of work, often finished within a certain time.

Team
- A group of individuals working to achieve a goal with activities requiring close coordination.

Team
Building- A term that describes the process of identifying roles for team members and helping the team members succeed in their roles.

Team Leader -
the representative of the team for which they are a member of. A "Team Lead" may have some supervisory responsibilities, but largely is "just one of the team" meaning they roll their sleeves up and work just like everyone else.

Team Start-Up Worksheet -
To develop the ground rules and logistics for a team before they actually start attacking a problem. Used at the initial project team meeting.

Team -
A group of individuals organized to work together to accomplish a specific objective.

Teams -
Groups of people that collaborate to achieve common goals. Teams will almost always come up with better answers and improvements than a single person can on their own. Look for Teams to almost completely replace standard heirarcal supervisory structures and systems in the future. This seems to be the natural evolution of self-direction in manufacturing today and going forward.

Teamware
- Computer software that is used in making group decisions.

Technical Report (TR) -
A type of document in the International Organization for Standardization portfolio of deliverables.

Technical specification (TS) -
A type of document in the International Organization for Standardization portfolio of deliverables.

Technology Feasibility Statement
- A feasibility statement used in the design process to assess a variety of issues such as necessary parameters for performance, manufacturing imperatives, limitations in the physics of materials, and conditions for quality testing the product.

Technology Selection for Product Development
- The process of selecting materials and technologies that provide the best performance for the customer at an acceptable cost.

Tests of Significance -
Used To statistically determine if a sample represents a population or if two or more samples are from the same population. To confirm that an improvement is truly an improvement and not just common cause variation in the process. t-tests use sample means to look at the location of the process output relative to a known population or to another population (represented by another sample mean). F-tests are used to compare the variances of two samples to determine if the variation between the two populations they represent are likely to be equal.

Theory
- "A system of assumptions, accepted principles, and rules of procedure devised to analyze, predict or otherwise explain the nature or behavior of a specified set of phenomena." (American Heritage dictionary] "theory leads to prediction. Without prediction, experience and examples teach us nothing." "No number of examples establishes a theory, yet a single unexplained failure of a theory requires modification or even abandonment of the theory." [From Deming's discussion of theory of knowledge].

Theory (Frequency ) of Probability
- The probability of an event is the limit of the percentage of times that the event occurs in repeated, independent trials under essentially the same circumstances.

Theory (Subjective ) of Probability
- A probability is a number that measures how strongly we believe an event will occur. The number is on a scale of 0% to 100%, with 0% indicating that we are completely sure it won't occur, and 100% indicating that we are completely sure that it will occur.

Theory of constraints (TOC) -
A lean management philosophy that stresses removal of constraints to increase throughput while decreasing inventory and operating expenses. TOC’s set of tools examines the entire system for continuous improvement. The current reality tree, conflict resolution diagram, future reality tree, prerequisite tree and transition tree are the five tools used in TOC’s ongoing improvement process. Also called constraints management.

Theory of Equally Likely Outcomes
- If an experiment has n possible outcomes, and (for example, by symmetry) there is no reason that any of the n possible outcomes should occur preferentially to any of the others, then the chance of each outcome is 100%/n. Each of these theories has its limitations, its proponents, and its detractors.

Theory of Probability
- A way of assigning meaning to probability statements that is, a theory of probability connects the mathematics of probability, which is the set of consequences of the axioms of probability, with the real world of observation and experiment

Three Spheres of Quality
- Quality management, quality assurance, and quality control.

Three T’s
- The task, treatment, and tangibles in service design.

Throughput -
(1) The rate at which work proceeds through a manufacturing system. Generally speaking the greatest inhibitor to Throughput is waste. Machine downtime, waiting for materials, out of stock supplies, operator errors, poorly designed processes, etc. all contribute to poor throughput in a manufacturing system. (2) The rate the system generates money through sales, or the conversion rate of inventory into shipped product.

Tier 1 Supplier -
(a.k.a. Prime Contractor, Prime) A supplier with prime or paramount design responsibilities for key systems, subsystems, or components as pertaining to end product(s).

Tier 2 Supplier -
(a.k.a. Sub-Contractor, Sub) A supplier to Tier 1 Suppliers, or a direct supplier of less critical components, systems or subsystems.

Tiger Teams
- Teams with a specific defined goal and a short time frame to attain the goal.

Time to Market -
The length of time it takes to develop a new product from inception until its' first market sales.

Time-based Competition -
The belief that the originator or first producer/vendor of a product has a significant market advantage over other companies. See also "Time to Market" A bi-product of this "race to market" is that competing companies must adapt their organizations in ways to minimize the time it takes to develop a product to exploit the "First on the scene" advantage.

Timeline Analysis -
To match up process performance over time with changes made to the process. Used for root cause analysis to identify changes that impacted the process performance. Remember to include changes in people, methods, equipment, materials, environment, and measurement systems.

Tolerance Design
- The act of determining the amount of allowable variability around parameters.

Tolerance -
The maximum and minimum limit values a product can have and still meet customer requirements.

Top Management
- person or group of people who directs and controls an organization (3.3.1) at the highest level - according to ISO9000

Top Management Commitment -
Participation of the highest level officials in their organization’s quality improvement efforts. Their participation includes establishing and serving on a quality committee, establishing quality policies and goals, deploying those goals to lower levels of the organization, providing the resources and training lower levels need to achieve the goals, participating in quality improvement teams, reviewing progress organizationwide, recognizing those who have performed well and revising the current reward system to reflect the importance of achieving the quality goals.

Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) -
(1) A series of methods, originally pioneered by Nippondenso (a member of the Toyota group), to ensure every machine in a production process is always able to perform its required tasks so production is never interrupted. (2) TPM is an equipment maintenance system that proactively addresses maintenance issues before they become major problems and cause equipment downtime. TPM engages machine operators and staff in the routine maintenance of equipment so machines are constantly maintained on a basic level. More advanced maintenance procedures are still performed by skilled maintenance professionals.

Total Quality
- Used together, these words are usually meant to recognize that real quality requires all elements of the organization to work together toward achieving that end. It means to strive for excellence in everything an organization does. It refers to a concept whereas total quality management refers to a collection of practices.

Total Quality Control (TQC) -
A system that integrates quality development, maintenance and improvement of the parts of an organization. It helps a company economically manufacture its product and deliver its services. OR an effective system for integrating the quality development, quality maintenance, and quality improvement efforts of the various groups in an organization so as to enable the groups at the most economical levels which allow full-customer satisfaction. (Feigenbaum)

Total Quality Management (TQM) -
(1) A Quality Control System focused on the correction of quality issues before they are permitted to subsequently be passed on for further processing. TQM systems are often "built-in" to manufacturing processes. (2) A term first used to describe a management approach to quality improvement. Since then, TQM has taken on many meanings. Simply put, it is a management approach to long-term success through customer satisfaction. TQM is based on all members of an organization participating in improving processes, products, services and the culture in which they work. The methods for implementing this approach are found in the teachings of such quality leaders as Philip B. Crosby, W. Edwards Deming, Armand V. Feigenbaum, Kaoru Ishikawa and Joseph M. Juran. (3) Total Quality Management (TQM) is an enhancement to the traditional way of doing business. It is a proven technique to guarantee survival in world-class competition. Only by changing the actions of management will the culture and actions of an entire organization be transformed. TQM is for the most part common sense. Analyzing the three words, we have

  • TOTAL - Made up of the whole.
  • QUALITY - Degree of excellence a product or service provides.
  • MANAGEMENT - Act, art, or manner of handling, controlling, directing, etc.

Therefore, TQM is the art of managing the whole to achieve excellence.

TQM is defined as both a philosophy and a set of guiding principles that represent the foundation of a continuously improving organization. It is the application of quantitative methods and human resources to improve all the processes within an organization and exceed customer needs now and in the future. TQM integrates fundamental management techniques, existing improvement efforts, and technical tools under a disciplined approach.

Total Quality -
A strategic integrated system for achieving customer satisfaction that involves all managers and employees and uses quantitative methods to continuously improve an organization’s processes.

Toyota Production System (TPS)
- The production system developed by Toyota Motor Corp. to provide best quality, lowest cost and shortest lead time through eliminating waste. TPS is based on two pillars: just-in-time and jidohka (see listings). TPS is maintained and improved through iterations of standardized work and kaizen (see listing.)

TQC
- Total Quality Control - A term used to describe an approach in which an organization strives to achieve excellence in all aspects of its endeavours and activities. Frequent use of the term total quality control probably started with the book what is total quality control by Kaoru Ishikawa [1985] but the term originated with Armand Feigenbaum in his 1961 book by that name.

TQE
- Total Quality in Education - TQM methods and practices applied to education.

TQHRM
- Total Quality Human Resources Management an approach to human resources management that involves many of the concepts of quality management. The primary purpose of this approach is to provide employees a supportive and empowered work environment.

TQI
- Total Quality Improvement - A term now used by some organizations (e.g., Hospitals) in place of TQM.

TQM
- Total Quality Management. A collection of methods and practices an organization uses in an attempt to achieve total quality. Often used loosely as a general statement of purpose, tqm does not represent a specific method or set of methods, nor does it appear to represent a theory for transformation of organizations.

Traceability
- The ability to track materials and products.

Training Needs
- Analysis the process of identifying organizational needs in terms of capabilities, task needs assessment in terms of skill sets that are needed within the firm, and individual needs analysis to determine how employee skills fit with company needs.

Training Needs Assessment
- A process for gathering organizational data relative to finding areas where training is most needed.

Training Program Design
- A term that describes the pro-cess of tailoring a course or set of courses to meet the needs of a company.

Trait Dimension
- A view of leadership that states that leadership potential is related to the “traits” of an individual, such as height.

Transaction Data -
The finite data pertaining to a given event occurring in a process. Examples are the data obtained when an individual checks out groceries (the grocery shopping process) and the data obtained from testing a machined component (the final product inspection step of the production process).

Transcendent
- A definition of quality that states that quality is something we all recognize but we cannot verbally define.

Tree Diagram
- A tool used to identify the steps needed to address a particular problem. Graphically shows any broad goal broken into different levels of detailed actions. It encourages team members to expand their thinking when creating solutions

Tree Diagram -
A management tool that depicts the hierarchy of tasks and subtasks needed to complete an objective. The finished diagram bears a resemblance to a tree.

Trend Control Chart -
A control chart in which the deviation of the subgroup average, X-bar, from an expected trend in the process level is used to evaluate the stability of a process.

Trend -
The graphical representation of a variable’s tendency, over time, to increase, decrease or remain unchanged.

Trial Limits - On a control chart, trial limits are calculated when there is insufficient data to calculate control limits. These give a temporary guide until sufficient data has been collected.

Trivial Many - The trivial many refers to the variables that are least likely responsible for variation in a process, product, or service.

TRIZ -
A Russian acronym for a theory of innovative problem solving.

True Capacity -
The "real attainable volume" at full utilization of a manufacturing system or subsystems after deducting for "normal events" such as machine maintenance, known bottlenecks, etc.

TS16949 -
Is the development of a quality management system that provides for continual improvement, emphasizing defect prevention and the reduction of variation and waste in the supply chain. TS16949 applies to the design/development, production and, when relevant, installation and servicing of automotive-related products. It is based on ISO9000.

T-Test -
A method to assess whether the means of two groups are statistically different from each other.

Type I Error
and Type II Error - A type I error occurs when the null hypothesis is rejected erroneously when it is in fact true. A type II error occurs if the null hypothesis is not rejected when it is in fact false. See also Significance Level and Power.

Type I error -
An incorrect decision to reject something (such as a statistical hypothesis or a lot of products) when it is acceptable.

Type II error -
An incorrect decision to accept something when it is unacceptable.