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14 Points - W. Edwards Deming’s 14 management practices to help companies increase their quality and productivity: 1. create constancy of purpose for improving products and services; 2. adopt the new philosophy; 3. cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality; 4. end the practice of awarding business on price alone; instead, minimize total cost by working with a single supplier; 5. improve constantly and forever every process for planning, production and service; 6. institute training on the job; 7. adopt and institute leadership; 8. drive out fear; 9. break down barriers between staff areas; 10. eliminate slogans, exhortations and targets for the workforce; 11. eliminate numerical quotas for the workforce and numerical goals for management; 12. remove barriers that rob people of pride of workmanship, and eliminate the annual rating or merit system; 13. institute a rigorous program of education and self-improvement for everyone; 14. put everybody in the company to work to accomplish the transformation. Frequency distribution (statistical): A table that graphically presents a large volume of data so the central tendency (such as the average or mean) and distribution are clearly displayed.

1st-Party Audit
- A Quality Audit performed by the organization itself.

21 CFR Part 820
- Section of the Code of Federal Regulations dealing with medical devices.

2nd-Party Audit
- A Quality Audit performed by a customer of the organization.

3 M
- Muda, Mura, Muri - Waste, Unevenness, Overburden - Japanese terms used as "check points" for identifying the areas in need of improvement. See also TPS (Toyota Production System)

3rd-Party Audit
- A Quality Audit performed by a body that is independent of both the organization and customer.

5 M
- Machines, Manpower, Methods, Materials, Measurement. See also Fishbone Diagram

5S
- see Five S

5 Whys - The 5 why's typically refers to the practice of asking why the failure has occurred five times in order to get to the root cause of the problem. No special technique is required. An example is in order:
You are on your way home from work and your car stops:

It should illustrate the importance of digging down beneath the most proximate cause of the problem. Failure to determine the root cause assures that you will be treating the symptoms of the problem instead of its cause, in which case, the disease will return, that is, you will continue to have the same problems over and over again

Also note that the actual numbers of whys is not important as long as you get to the root cause. One might well ask why did you loose all your money in the poker game last night

6 Sigma
- see Six Sigma

8D
- see Eight Disciplines Problem Solving