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Glossary - I
 

IAF - International Accreditation Forum

IBNR
- Sometimes used to make the point that some information or data may be "interesting, but not relevant". Management needs to know "what are we trying to learn from these data (what is the purpose of these data)?" "What do we know about how the data were obtained?" "What do the data tell us?" "What do the data not tell us that we need to know?"

Ideal Quality
- A reference point identified by Taguchi for determining the quality level of a product or service.

Ideal State Map - (a.k.a. "Future State" or "Should Be" Map) -
A future-looking version of a process map (VSM) "Value Stream Mapping" depicting how a process will work after improvements are implemented.  Creating a Future State Map is a great exercise for helping your improvement teams catch the vision of where you are going in your Lean process. This map can be created to some degree immediately following the creation of your "Current State Map" or after significant improvements have been made. It is recommended creating an Ideal State Map very early in your VSM process to help set the focus for your improvement efforts.

ILAC
- The International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation

Imagineering
- A term used to describe creating a vision of a process or system as it would be in an ideal state. OR Developing in the mind’s eye a process without waste.

Imperfection:
A quality characteristic’s departure from its intended level or state without any association to conformance to specification requirements or to the usability of a product or service. Also see “blemish,” “defect” and “nonconformity.”

Improvement - The positive effect of a process change effort.

In-Control process - (1) A process in which the statistical measure being evaluated is in a state of statistical control; in other words, the variations among the observed sampling results can be attributed to a constant system of chance causes. Also see “out-of-control process.” (2) A process is said to be "in control" or "stable" if it is in statistical control. If a process is in statistical control, a control chart will have no subgroups falling outside the control limits, no runs, and no nonrandom patterns.

Incremental Improvement -
Improvement implemented on a continual basis.

Independent Variable
- Variables (x’s) that influence the response of the dependent (or output) variable.

Indicators -
Established measures to determine how well an organization is meeting its customers’ needs and other operational and financial performance expectations.

Individuals Control Chart - The individual portion of an X-MR control chart. The individual data points are plotted onto the chart and compared with control limits.

Individual Needs Assessment
- A method for determining training needs at the worker level prior to developing and implementing training programs. Often associated with company literacy programs.

Induction
- An approach to theory development based on observation and description. Although the process of induction is useful, it is subject to observer bias and misperception.

Information Flow -
The dissemination of information for taking a specific product from order entry through detailed scheduling to delivery. Also see “value stream.”

Information Integrity or Infotegrity - The ability to communicate data and documentation completely, accurately and in a timely manner.

Informative Inspection -
A form of inspection for determining nonconforming product. Also see “judgment inspection.”

Infrastructure
- System of facilities, equipment and services needed for the operation of an organization - acc ISO 9000:2005 3.3.3

Initiator Firm
- The firm that is interested in benchmarking and initiates contact with benchmark firms.

Innovation -
Creating something new i.e., an idea, device or processing method; Invention.

In-Process Inspection
- The practice of inspecting work, by the workers themselves, at each stage of the production process.

Inputs -
The products, services and material obtained from suppliers to produce the outputs delivered to customers.

Inspection
– (1) Functional Inspection: testing products in real or simulated conditions to see whether they work as intended. (2) Mass (100%) Inspection: looking at all products to screen out those that may be defective. (3) Sampling Inspection: looking at a fraction (a sample) of all the output to determine disposition of that output.

Inspection Cost -
The cost associated with inspecting a product to ensure it meets the internal or external customer’s needs and requirements; an appraisal cost.

Inspection Lot -
A collection of similar units or a specific quantity of similar material offered for inspection and acceptance at one time.

Inspection, 100% -
Inspection of all the units in the lot or batch.

Inspection, Curtailed -
Sampling inspection in which inspection of the sample is stopped as soon as a decision is certain. Thus, as soon as the rejection number for defectives is reached, the decision is certain and no further inspection is necessary. In single sampling, however, the whole sample is usually inspected in order to have an unbiased record of quality history. This same practice is usually followed for the first sample in double or multiple sampling.

Inspection, Normal -
Inspection used in accordance with a sampling plan under ordinary circumstances.

Inspection, Reduced -
Inspection in accordance with a sampling plan requiring smaller sample sizes than those used in normal inspection. Reduced inspection is used in some inspection systems as an economy measure when the level of submitted quality is sufficiently good and other stated conditions apply. Note: The criteria for determining when quality is “sufficiently good” must be defined in objective terms for any given inspection system.

Inspection, Tightened -
Inspection in accordance with a sampling plan that has stricter acceptance criteria than those used in normal inspection. Tightened inspection is used in some inspection systems as a protective measure when the level of submitted quality is sufficiently poor. The higher rate of rejections is expected to lead suppliers to improve the quality of submitted product. Note: The criteria for determining when quality is “sufficiently poor” must be defined in objective terms for any given inspection system.

Inspection -
Measuring, examining, testing and gauging one or more characteristics of a product or service and comparing the results with specified requirements to determine whether conformity is achieved for each characteristic.

Instant Pudding -
A term used to illustrate an obstacle to achieving quality or the supposition that quality and productivity improvement are achieved quickly through an affirmation of faith rather than through sufficient effort and education. W. Edwards Deming used this term, which was coined by James Bakken of Ford Motor Co., in his book Out of the Crisis.

Intangible -
 A characteristic of services that means that services (unlike manufactured goods) cannot be inventoried or carried in stock over a long period of time.

Interested Party
- person or group having an interest in the performance or success of an organization - acc to ISO 9000:2005 3.3.7

Interference
- Checking a feasibility test for product designs to make sure that wires, cabling, and tubing in products such as airplanes don’t conflict with each other.

Interference Checking -
 A feasibility test for product designs to make sure that wires, cabling, and tubing in products such as airplanes don’t conflict with each other.

Intermediate Customers -
Organizations or individuals who operate as distributors, brokers or dealers between the supplier and the consumer or end user.

Internal Assessment -
 The act of searching for strengths and areas for improvement in quality deployment.

Internal Customer -
The recipient (person or department) within an organization of another person’s or department’s output (product, service or information). Also see “external customer.” OR Individuals within the organization that receive the work that other individuals within the same organization do.

Internal Customers - (1) In a manufacturing environment "Internal Customers" are the people, machines, or processes being supplied with the products or parts made in preceding work area(s). (2) Individuals within the organization that receive the work that other individuals within the same organization do.

Internal Failure Costs
- (1) Losses that occur while the product is in possession of the producer. These include rework and scrap costs. (2) Costs associated with defects found before the customer receives the product or service.

Internal Failure -
A product failure that occurs before the product is delivered to external customers.

Internal Quality Audit - A systematic evaluation of review process of the quality management system to ensure compliance within pre-determined quality requirements.

Internal Services -
 Services that are provided by internal company personnel. For example, data processing personnel are often considered providers of internal services.

Internal Setup - (1) Die setup procedures that must be performed while a machine is stopped; also known as inner exchange of die. (2) Taken from (SMED) These are setup procedures that can only be effected when a machine is in a "Zero Mechanical State." The goal of SMED is to change dies or other components/processes in under 10 minutes. "Internal" setup elements that require machines to be completely inoperable are one of the greatest sources of waste during a setup/changeover process. Therefore, much time and attention is dedicated to discovering how machines can continue running during most or all of the changeover process.

Internal Suppliers -
Are the people, machines, or processes delivering or supplying products or parts they have made to the next (in sequence) work area(s). Internal Suppliers have an opportunity to satisfy an "Internal Customer" by delivering quality products, on time, every time, where their Internal Customers want them, how they want them, etc. Essentially, everyone and every department is someone's customer and someone's supplier. Departments may have many different Internal Suppliers and Internal Customers. Whether an individual or a department has only one or many customers/suppliers they should always treat them as if they were "prized customers" or "valued suppliers."

Internal Validation -
 Method of studying the quality system to find gaps in quality deployment.

International Organization for Standardization -
A network of national standards institutes from 157 countries working in partnership with international organizations, governments, industry, business and consumer representatives to develop and publish international standards; acts as a bridge between public and private sectors.

Interrelationship Diagram -
A management tool that depicts the relationship among factors in a complex situation; also called “relations diagram.”

Interrelationship Digraph - 
A tool designed to help identify the causal relationships between the issues affecting a particular problem.

Intervention -
The action of a team facilitator when interrupting a discussion to state observations about group dynamics or the team process.

Intrinsic Motivation
- Actions taken because of internal desires or needs for such things as satisfaction with doing a job well, engaging in meaningful work, feeling challenged, achieving a personal goal, growing in skill or gaining knowledge.

Inventory Turns -
The number of times you can "Turn" (use and replace) your inventory/money over in a year.

Inventory -
(1) In lean, the money invested to purchase things an organization intends to sell. (2) The money and materials invested in by a company in order to create products for sale. The most common types of Inventory are: Raw Materials; Un processed components waiting for work to be done on them. This is the least expensive form of inventory especially if suppliers will wait for payment until you begin using these materials. Work In Process (W.I.P.); Materials that have had some work done to them but are not yet finished. This is the second most expensive form of inventory as "value" has been added to the materials. Finished Goods; This is the most expensive type of inventory as the materials have already traveled through the value stream and are now complete. Although most companies carry some Finished Goods Inventory it can be a serious waste and burden on cash-flow. 

Investigation
- Ability to find sources of competitive advantage in generic internal assessment.

Involuntary Services
- a classification for services that are not sought by customers. These include hospitals, prisons, and the internal revenue service.

IQR: Internal Quality Review - T he systematic, independent & documented process for obtaining review evidence & evaluating it objectively to determine the extent to which review criteria are fulfilled.

Ishikawa diagram -
See “cause and effect diagram.” It is an analysis tool that provides a systematic way of looking at effects and the causes that create or contribute to those effects. It is called Cause and Effect diagram because of its function, Fishbone diagram because of its shape and Ishikawa diagram because it was introduce by Kauro Ishikawa of Japan.

ISO 10013
- Guidelines for quality management system documentation

ISO 10019
- Guidelines for the selection of quality management system consultants and use of their services

ISO 13485
- Medical devices -- Quality management systems -- Requirements for regulatory purposes

ISO 14001
- Environmental management systems -- Requirements with guidance for use

ISO 14001
- Environmental management systems -- Requirements with guidance for use

ISO 19011
- Guidelines for Quality and Environmental Management Systems Auditing

ISO 22000
- Food safety management systems – Requirements for any organization in the food chain

ISO 29001
- ISO/TS 29001:2003 - Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries — Sector-specific quality management systems — Requirements

ISO 9000 Series of Documents Including ISO 9001
- Consists of individual but related international standards on quality management and quality assurance. Developed to help companies effectively document the elements to be implemented in order to maintain an efficient quality system. It is a requirement often placed on manufacturing companies. The basic idea behind ISO 9000 methodology is that you document what you do, then you do what you described in the documentation. During an ISO 9000 certification process, the examining registrar will audit your company to confirm that you are following the standard. If you re, you can be certified. An updated version is ISO 9001:2000, which requires that you demonstrate improvements are being made within your processes. ISO is Greek for Equal.

ISO 9000 Series Standards -
A set of international standards on quality management and quality assurance developed to help companies effectively document the quality system elements to be implemented to maintain an efficient quality system. The standards, initially published in 1987, are not specific to any particular industry, product or service. The standards were developed by the International Organization for Standardization (see listing). The standards underwent major revision in 2000 and now include ISO 9000:2000 (definitions), ISO 9001:2000 (requirements) and ISO 9004:2000 (continuous improvement).

ISO 9001
- Quality management systems - Requirements

ISO/TS 16949 - International Organization for Standardization international technical specification for quality management systems, with particular requirements for the application of ISO 9001:2000 for automotive production and relevant service part organization; generally replaced the U.S. QS-9000 standard.