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Glossary - H
 

Hack - A label for someone who knows just enough to teach the wrong things very well...And enough to be dangerous.

Hard Data
- Measurements data such as height, weight, volume, or speed that can be measured on a continuous scale.

Hard Data Measurements -
data such as height, weight, volume, or speed that can be measured on a continuous scale.

Hardware Mock-Ups
- Physical representations of hardware that show designers, managers, and users how an eventual system will work.

Hawthorne
Effect - The concept that every change results (initially, at least) in increased productivity.

Heijunka - (1) A method of leveling production, usually at the final assembly line, that makes just-in-time production possible. It involves averaging both the volume and sequence of different model types on a mixed model production line. Using this method avoids excessive batching of different types of product and volume fluctuations in the same product. Also see “production smoothing.” (2) Heijunka is the act of leveling the variety and/or volume of items produced at a process over a period of time. It is used to avoid excessive batching of product types and/or volume fluctuations, especially at a pacemaker process. (3) Heijunka is the leveling of production by both volume and product mix. This system does not build products according to the actual flow of customer orders. Heijunka takes the total volume of orders in a period and levels them out so the same amount and mix are being made each day.

Heterogeneous
- A characteristic of services that means that for many companies, no two services are exactly the same. For example, an advertising company would not develop the same advertising campaign for two different clients.

Heteroscedasticity
- A scatter-plot or residual plot shows heteroscedasticity if the scatter in vertical slices through the plot depends on where you take the slice. Linear regression is not usually a good idea if the data are heteroscedastic.

Hidden Factory
- A term introduced by Wickham Skinner that refers to firm activities that have no effect on the customer.

Highly Accelerated Life Test (HALT) -
A process for uncovering design defects and weaknesses in electronic and mechanical assemblies using a vibration system combined with rapid high and low temperature changes. The purpose of HALT is to optimize product reliability by identifying the functional and destructive limits of a product at an early stage in product development.

Highly Accelerated Stress Audits (HASA) - A technique in which a sample of parts (as opposed to 100% of the production as in HASS,) is subjected to stresses similar to the levels and duration for HALT. In monitoring the production process, the intent of HASA is to detect slight shifts in the attributes of the product so corrective actions can be taken and implemented before the performance of outgoing product approaches the specifications.

Highly Accelerated Stress Screening (HASS) - A technique for production screening that rapidly exposes process or production flaws in products. Its purpose is to expose a product to optimized production screens without affecting product reliability. Unlike HALT, HASS uses nondestructive stresses of extreme temperatures and temperature change rates with vibration.

Histogram - (1) A graphic summary of variation in a set of data. The pictorial nature of a histogram lets people see patterns that are difficult to detect in a simple table of numbers. One of the “seven tools of quality”. (2) A representation of data in a bar chart format. (3) Vertical bar type display of a population distribution in terms of frequencies; a formal method of plotting a frequency distribution. (4) A histogram is a bar chart that represents the frequency distribution of data. The height of each bar corresponds to the number of items in the class or cell. The width of each bar represents a measurement interval. The histogram shows basic information such as central location, shape, and spread of the data being examined.

Homoscedasticity
- A scatter-plot or residual plot shows homoscedasticity if the scatter in vertical slices through the plot does not depend much on where you take the slice

Horizontal Deployment - 
A term that denotes that all of the departments of a firm are involved in the firm’s quality efforts.

Hoshin
- From the Japanese term Hoshin Kanri, meaning policy deployment or management by policy. Used in this country to refer to a special focus of an organization. One organization refers to Hoshin as a "planning system for implementing total quality management (TQM)"

Hoshin kanri -
The selection of goals, projects to achieve the goals, designation of people and resources for project completion and establishment of project metrics. Also see “policy deployment.”

Hoshin Planning
- Process a policy deployment approach to strategic planning originated by japanese firms. Breakthrough planning. A strategic planning process in which a company develops up to four vision statements that indicate where the company should be in the next five years. Company goals and work plans are developed based on the vision statements. Periodic audits are then conducted to monitor progress.

Hoshin Planning Process -
 A policy deployment approach to strategic planning originated by Japanese firms.

House of Quality (HOQ) - A product planning matrix, somewhat resembling a house, that is developed during quality function deployment and shows the relationship of customer requirements to the means of achieving these requirements. Another name for quality function deployment.

Human Resource Measures
- Ratios that are used to measure the effectiveness of a firm’s human resource practices.

Hypothesis
- An assertion subject to verification or proof.